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Information Literacy Modules
  • What is a "born digital" image?

    We call an image "born digital" if:

    • It was created (e.g. digital camera, computer screen capture program, desktop scanner) in digital form for the Web
    • Or you do not know where the image itself (not the place or object in it) is physically stored

  • How do I evaluate an image creator?

    A creator's expertise should relate to your subject:

    • Credentials
    • Expertise
    • A body of work, exhibitions or publications

  • How do I evaluate a "born digital" photograph?

    A photograph meaning is shaped by the photographer's point of view and our background as we "read" it. To evaluate a photograph, ask:
    • What do I see (observations)?
    • What might it mean (inferences)?
    • How does it make me feel?
    • Why might this photo have been taken?
    • What is out of the picture? What might be missing?
    • What other questions might I ask?

  • Has my photograph been altered?

    Personal and professional photographs are often staged or edited:
    • For dramatic or aesthetic impact
    • To correct imperfections (e.g., red eye)
    • To deceive the viewer

    One test for an edited image is to use an image search engine to compare your image with others.

  • How do I cite a born digital image on the open Web?

    Gather elements from the image's Web page or the referring page:
    • Permanent URL
    • Name of website
    • Title of image (if untitled, provide a description)
    • Photographer or artist
    • Date of e-publication or copyright
    • Publisher of website
    • Identifier / image ID, if given

  • How do I cite a born digital image in a subscription database?

    Gather elements from the vendor's record:

    • Permanent URL
    • Name of publisher / vendor
    • Database name
    • Title of image
    • Date of copyright or e-publication
    • Date of access
    • Identifier / image ID
    • Photographer or artist, if given

  • How do I cite an image that I found using a search engine?

    A search engine's result points to a source on the Web.

    Cite the source, not the search engine result.

    • Click the URL link (Bing) or "Website for this image" (Google)
    • Cite the Web page on which the image is found