What is a "born digital" image?
We call an image "born digital" if:
How do I evaluate an image creator?
Search the creator's name to evaluate how his portfolio, expertise and point of view relate to your subject. A credible artist or photographer may have:
How do I evaluate a "born digital" photograph?
A photograph can be both a fine art and a visual record, but it is never entirely objective. A photographer has a point of view and makes visual choices (time, place, perspective, color and lighting) for a purpose or to make an argument.
We view a photo from our own frames of reference, shaped by cultural and personal meanings. To "read" and evaluate a photograph, ask:
Has my photograph been manipulated?
Personal and professional photographs are frequently staged, cropped or altered:
You can compare shadows on similar objects to see if the light source is consistent. Another method is to draw lines to check the light source.
Tip: Slight errors in matching points to shadows might throw the lines off slightly, but large discrepancies indicate editing.
What is an image collection?Images may be organized in a database or online album, such as:
How do I evaluate an image collection?Read the sponsor or publisher's guidelines.
How do I cite a born digital image on the open Web?Gather elements from the image's Web page or the referring page:
Tip: In Flickr, mouse-over the date that the photo was taken to get the date of e-publication.
How do I cite a born digital image in a subscription database?
Gather elements from the vendor's record:
How do I cite an image that I found using a search engine?
A search engine's result points to a source on the Web.
Cite the source, not the search engine result.