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[MLA] What does n.d., n.p. or n.pag. mean in my citation?

When certain publishing information is missing from your citation, NoodleTools follows MLA style and inserts the correct abbreviation to explain its absence.  If you have omitted information by accident, edit your citation and add it to the correct field.

n.p. ("no publisher")
means that the publisher's name is missing

n.p. ("no place") means the city of publication is missing

n.d. ("no date) means that the publication date is missing

n. pag ("no pagination") means that the book's pages are unnumbered


What do they mean in my citation?

N.p.: Harper, n.d.

...means that the publisher is Harper and Row, but neither the city of publication nor the year of publication is given.

New York: Harper, 2008. N. pag.

...means that the book is not paginated.


How do I provide missing publication information?

Use brackets to supply information that would be helpful to your reader but did not come from your source:

  • you can provide it in brackets if you know the data  [1806]
  • if you think you know it [1806?]
  • or if you know the general timeframe [c. 1806] - c. stands for circa, which means "about"

Brackets can be used around the publisher and city of publication in a similar manner.

Cowell, Andrew, ed. World EXPO 88: The Official Souvenir Program. [Brisbane]: Walsh, 1988. Print.

...means that the city of publication is known but not explicitly stated in the book.

[Eng.]: n.p., n.d.

...means that the writer knows that the source was published in England, but the source did not indicate either the publisher nor the date of publication.


How do I provide information that I don't know?

You may have to do some research to find required or important information, which then should be added in square brackets. You can use the following library catalogs to complete citations or find out more about a source:

WorldCat, the Library of Congress and the British Library




This article last revised: 11/30/2012

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