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[APA] How do I cite an interview or survey?


APA doesn't specifically talk about citation of surveys, but as they are analogous to interviews, you can follow the general rules here if your source is a survey.

APA Unpublished Interview

For APA, do not cite personal communications (e.g., face-to-face interviews, telephone or e-mail interviews) in the reference list, since they are not archived, recoverable sources. Instead, use an in-text citation (with initials and surname of person being interviewed) as in these examples:

"...at her wedding R. Abilock (personal communication, April 4, 2004) discussed..."

"...he called the current economic climate uncertain (R. Abilock, personal communication, July 6, 2004)."

Note: NoodleTools will produce a citation for you if you choose the "Interview" source type, in case you do want the citation in your References list for any reason. However, you'll see at the bottom of the form that there is a "Include this source in my final references list" checkbox with the instructions: "In APA style, personal communications like private letters, memos, e-mails, and personal interviews are usually cited in text only. Uncheck this box unless you have a specific reason to include this entry."

APA Published Interview

Interviews can be published in a number of ways. Some examples:

  • interview transcript on the Web
  • collection of interviews in an anthology
  • sound clip of an interview on a Web site
  • an interview that is an "extra" on a DVD
In NoodleTools, you can start by (a) selecting the source where the interview is published (e.g., Web site, Book, Journal, Film or Video Recording, etc.) and then choosing "Interview" as the content type, or (b) selecting "Interview" as the citation type, which will take you to a form for citing a personal interview. From there, open the citation dropdown (either at the top of the screen next to "Cite a" or the "change to" one within the "Personal Interview" section of the form) and select the applicable option for your source (e.g., "Audio clip of an interview (online)," "Interview broadcast on TV or radio," "Interview in a blog," etc.).
In APA style, the person who was interviewed (the "interviewee") is considered the primary contributor, and will appear at the beginning of your citation. The interviewer can be included (not required) in parentheses after the title of the interview.
Consider this audio clip of an interview published on the NPR Web site:


The finished citation (using the Interview / Audio Clip (Online) form) would look like this:

Edleman, M. W. (2004, October 21). Marian Wright Edelman: Bush leaving kids behind (T. Smiley, Interviewer) [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4120281

If the interview does not have a formal title like this one, the name of the interviewer can be included in a statement that replaces the title, e.g., [Interview by T. Smiley]

This article last revised: 06/29/2012

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