- Digital Library Collections at The New York Public
- The New York Public Library's Digital Shomburg Images of African Americans from the
19th Century are composed of carefully selected images by "a photographer noted
for her interest in African American folkloric traditions" to "complement and
supplement" the Shomberg's full text electronic databases of writings by people of
African descent. Marilyn Nance's essay "Searching
the Past for an Understanding of the Present" is worth reading and discussing in
- American Memory Collections at the
Library of Congress
- The American Memory Historical Collections, part of the Library's National Digital
Library Program (NDLP), are multimedia collections of "unique Americana that will be
of greatest value to students, researchers, and educators." Selection is
"based on cultural and educational value, expected demand, input from the NDLP
Advisory Committee, and the ability of current technology to capture the content."
The following special collections are represented in the digital images used for
- The American Variety
Stage:Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment, 1870-1920 draws from various Library of
Congress holdings to form a multimedia anthology of popular entertainment, especially
vaudeville, and contains a special selection of materials documenting the life and career
of Harry Houdini.
- The Northern Great
Plains, 1880-1920: Photographs from the Fred Hultstrand and F.A. Pazandak Photograph
Collections, from the Institute for Regional Studies at North Dakota State University,
focuses on settling, farming, and the material culture of rural and small towns at the
- The South Texas
Border: Photographs from the Robert Runyon Photograph Collection represents the life's
work of a commercial photographer and documents the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the
- Taking the Long View: Panoramic
Photographs 1851-1991 provides wide views of cities, landscapes, and group portraits
throughout the United States particularly at the beginning of the 20th century when the
panoramic photo format was especially popular.
- Touring Turn-of-the-Century
America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1980-1920 published
photographs in the form of postcards, prints, and albums for sale to the American market.
- California Heritage Collection at the
University of California, Berkeley
- The California Heritage Collection, part of the Online Archive of California (an online
union database of finding aids to archival collections), selects images illustrating the
"rich themes" of California's history and culture from the collections of the
Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. A list of
collections can be browsed.
collections used for these activities are:
of Agricultural Laborers in California, ca. 1906-1911, taken as part of a 1908
U.S. Immigration Commission study conducted by a Stanford University professor to gather
information on immigrant farm labor problems of the San Joaquin Valley.
Francisco Chinese Community and Earthquake Damage, ca. 1906, photographs pre- and
post-earthquake which were taken by a teacher or student at the Chinese Methodist Episcopal
Mission, a girls' home in San Francisco's Chinatown.
- Through our
Parents' Eyes: Tucson's Diverse Community at the University of Arizona
- Narrowly focused, personal collections like "The
Descendants of Josť Ignacio Moraga: Commander of the Tucson Presidio," are part
of Cuentos de Nuestros Padres: Tucson's Hispanic Community which traces the
history of Hispanic Americans in Tucson from various ethnic backgrounds "in a way
that acknowledges our multi-cultural heritage."
- The National Archives and Records
- The mission of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), an independent
Federal agency overseeing the management of all Federal records, is to make it easy for
all citizens to access "the essential evidence that documents the rights of American
citizens, the actions of Federal officials, and the national experience" regardless
of the location (Washington, DC, the regional archives, and the Presidential libraries).
NARA houses photographs of Lewis Hine, an investigative reporter who
documented child labor for the National Child Labor Committee. In
addition to a small
portfolio and lesson,
you can use NAIL to
search for his work.
Using Primary Sources in Historical Inquiry
- ABC-CLIO's Teaching With Documents series (http://www.abc-clio.com/products/browseseries.aspx?seriesid=33
the Source." October 13, 2000. New York State Archives. [http://www.archives.nysed.gov/a/nysaservices/ns_edu_consider.shtml]
- Craver, Kathleen Craver. Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach
Critical Thinking Skills in History (Greenwood, 1999).
Film Study Center, Harvard University [http://dohistory.org/DHindex.html]
- Edinger, Monica. Seeking History: Teaching with Primary Sources
in Grades 4-6 (Heinemann, 2000).
- Greenwood Press' (http://greenwood.com)
Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides in School Librarianship
series. Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in Geography (2000), History (1999), Government, Economics, and Contemporary World Issues, World Languages (2000), Sciences (2003), Visual Arts (2003).
Historian's Sources: Types of Primary Sources." December 1998. Library of
Congress Learning Page [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/psources/types.html]
- Hufford, Mary, Marjorie Hunt & Steven Zeitlin. The Grand Generation:
Memory, Master, Legacy. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Traveling
Exhibition Service and Office of Folklife Programs, 1987.
- James, Helen Foster. Across the Generations; Selecting and Using
Intergenerational Resources. Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin: Highsmith, 1996.
- Kobrin, David. Beyond the Textbook; Teaching History Using
Documents and Primary Sources (Heinemann, 1996).
- Leggat, Robert. "A History of
Photography from its Beginning till the 1920s." [http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/]
- "Making Sense of Evidence."
American Social History Project / Center for Media and Learning and the
Center for History and New Media. [http://historymatters.gmu.edu/browse/makesense/]
- Nance, Marilyn. "Searching
the Past for an Understanding of the Future." July 1997. Digital Shomburg
Images of 19th Century African Americans. [http://220.127.116.11/cgi-shl/vsc30b.exe/schomburg/images_aa19/searchpast.html?L+nyplbeta+epoh6431+927476061]
Quest issue on Primary Sources: v. 29. no. 1. September/October, 2000. [http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/knowledgequest/backissues/volume29/number1.htm]
- National Archives and
Records Administration. Digital
- "Self Works; Diaries,
Scrapbooks, and other Autobiographical Efforts." Special Collections Department. University of Delaware Library.
[http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/selfwork/] (June 14, 1999)
- Stanford, Michael. A Companion to the Study of History. Oxford, UK:
Blackwell Publishers, 1994.
- Veccia, Susan H. Uncovering Our History: Teaching with Primary Sources. Chicago: American Library Association, 2004.
- Winston, Linda. Keepsakes; Using Family Stories in Elementary Classrooms.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1997.
Advice for students on research strategies:
- Photographs, letters and other memorabilia from family collections of your
- For San Francisco students: View "historic technologies"
displayed in a refurbished doctor's home, now the Museum of the
American Heritage (MOAH) in Palo Alto (CA).
- The American Studies Web is
a searchable bibliography of web-based resources.
Sources from State Archives summarizes archival projects in each state.
- History Matters contains
first-person narratives, lesson plans and teacher resources
- You can look for other digital "Repositories of
Primary Sources." Special Collections and Archives.
University of Idaho Library. [http://www.uidaho.edu/special-collections/Other.Repositories.html]